Heidelberg Catechism, Lord’s Day 15
It's also worth noting how many different images of the atonement are mentioned in Heidelberg's brief summary - penal substitution, propitiation, redemption, justification, life-giving, judgment-removing, curse-bearing - and others are found elsewhere. No atonement reductionism here.]
Q37. What do you understand
by the word “suffered”?
A37. That during his whole life on earth,
but especially at the end,
in body and soul
the wrath of God against the sin of the whole human race.
This he did in order that,
by his suffering as the only atoning sacrifice,
he might deliver us, body and soul,
from eternal condemnation,
and gain for us
and eternal life.
Q38. Why did he suffer
“under Pontius Pilate” as judge?
A38. So that he,
might be condemned by an earthly judge,
and so free us from the severe judgment of God
that was to fall on us.
Q39. Is it significant that he was “crucified”
instead of dying some other way?
By this I am convinced
that he shouldered the curse
which lay on me,
since death by crucifixion was cursed by God.